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Parasite Immunol. 2004 Nov-Dec;26(11-12):443-54.

The immunoepidemiology of human hookworm infection.

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  • 1School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. r.j.quinnell@leeds.ac.uk


Advances in hookworm immunoepidemiology are reviewed. Recent studies demonstrate a mixed Th1/Th2 response in human hookworm infection, with immunosuppression of specific and nonspecific IFN-gamma responses. There is increasing evidence for protective immunity in human hookworm infection, including anti-larval IL-5- and IgE-dependent mechanisms, and for immunological interactions between hookworm infection and other diseases.

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