Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23:515-48.

The B7 family revisited.

Author information

  • 1Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. rgreenwald@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Abstract

The discovery of new functions for the original B7 family members, together with the identification of additional B7 and CD28 family members, have revealed new ways in which the B7:CD28 family regulates T cell activation and tolerance. B7-1/B7-2:CD28 interactions not only promote initial T cell activation but also regulate self-tolerance by supporting CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cell homeostasis. CTLA-4 can exert its inhibitory effects in both B7-1/B7-2 dependent and independent fashions. B7-1 and B7-2 can signal bidirectionally by engaging CD28 and CTLA-4 on T cells and by delivering signals into B7-expressing cells. The five new B7 family members, ICOS ligand, PD-L1 (B7-H1), PD-L2 (B7-DC), B7-H3, and B7-H4 (B7x/B7-S1) are expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells as well as on cells within nonlymphoid organs, providing new means for regulating T cell activation and tolerance in peripheral tissues. The new CD28 families members, ICOS, PD-1, and BTLA, are inducibly expressed on T cells, and they have important roles in regulating previously activated T cells. PD-1 and BTLA also are expressed on B cells and may have broader immunoregulatory functions. The ICOS:ICOSL pathway appears to be particularly important for stimulating effector T cell responses and T cell-dependent B cell responses, but it also has an important role in regulating T cell tolerance. In addition, the PD-1:PD-L1/PD-L2 pathway plays a critical role in regulating T cell activation and tolerance. In this review, we revisit the roles of the B7:CD28 family members in regulating immune responses, and we discuss their therapeutic potential.

PMID:
15771580
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk