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Am J Med. 2005 Mar;118(3):285-91.

Seasonality of invasive pneumococcal disease: temporal relation to documented influenza and respiratory syncytial viral circulation.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.



Seasonal fluctuation in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease has been attributed to winter virus exposure (e.g., influenza and respiratory syncytial virus [RSV]). Evidence of a direct correlation of invasive pneumococcal disease with laboratory-confirmed virus seasons, however, is limited. Using two prospective surveillance networks, the temporal relation between invasive pneumococcal disease and isolation of circulating winter viruses was explored.


Episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease in five Tennessee counties were collected prospectively from January 1995 through June 2002. Virus seasons were defined using prospective laboratory-based surveillance. Correlation between weekly identification of invasive pneumococcal disease and laboratory isolation of RSV and influenza, as well as comparisons of the frequencies of invasive pneumococcal disease episodes during viral and nonviral seasons were determined.


A total of 4147 invasive pneumococcal disease episodes were identified. Weekly frequency of invasive pneumococcal disease correlated directly with the weekly frequency of isolation of RSV (r = 0.56, P <0.001) and influenza (r= 0.40, P <0.001). The average weekly frequency of invasive pneumococcal disease during RSV and influenza seasons was higher than during the nonviral seasons (P <0.001 for each year).


Weekly episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease correlated temporally with laboratory-confirmed weekly isolation of RSV and influenza, and the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease was increased when these viruses were circulating in the community.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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