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Tissue Eng. 2005 Jan-Feb;11(1-2):1-18.

Mediation of biomaterial-cell interactions by adsorbed proteins: a review.

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  • 1Tissue Bioregeneration Domain, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. c2.wilson@qut.edu.au

Abstract

An appropriate cellular response to implanted surfaces is essential for tissue regeneration and integration. It is well described that implanted materials are immediately coated with proteins from blood and interstitial fluids, and it is through this adsorbed layer that cells sense foreign surfaces. Hence, it is the adsorbed proteins, rather than the surface itself, to which cells initially respond. Diverse studies using a range of materials have demonstrated the pivotal role of extracellular adhesion proteins--fibronectin and vitronectin in particular--in cell adhesion, morphology, and migration. These events underlie the subsequent responses required for tissue repair, with the nature of cell surface interactions contributing to survival, growth, and differentiation. The pattern in which adhesion proteins and other bioactive molecules adsorb thus elicits cellular reactions specific to the underlying physicochemical properties of the material. Accordingly, in vitro studies generally demonstrate favorable cell responses to charged, hydrophilic surfaces, corresponding to superior adsorption and bioactivity of adhesion proteins. This review illustrates the mediation of cell responses to biomaterials by adsorbed proteins, in the context of osteoblasts and selected materials used in orthopedic implants and bone tissue engineering. It is recognized, however, that the periimplant environment in vivo will differ substantially from the cell-biomaterial interface in vitro. Hence, one of the key issues yet to be resolved is that of the interface composition actually encountered by osteoblasts within the sequence of inflammation and bone regeneration.

PMID:
15738657
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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