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Psychiatry Res. 2005 Jan 30;138(1):13-22.

Anger and depression in cocaine addiction: association with the orbitofrontal cortex.

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  • 1Medical Research, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 490, 30 Bell Ave, Upton, NY, 11973-5000, USA.


The high prevalence of anger, impulsivity and violence in cocaine addiction implicates chronic cocaine use in the compromise of higher-order inhibitory control neurocognitive processes. We used the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) anger content scale as a personality measure of inhibitory control and examined its association with glucose metabolism in the lateral orbitofrontal gyrus (LOFG) at rest as measured by positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (PET (18)FDG) in 17 recently abstinent cocaine-dependent subjects and 16 comparison subjects. Three additional variables--the MMPI-2 depression content scale, metabolism in the medial orbitofrontal gyrus (MOFG) and the anterior cingulate (AC) gyrus--were inspected. When level of education was statistically controlled for, the LOFG was significantly associated with anger within the cocaine group. No other region was associated with anger within the cocaine-dependent group, and the LOFG did not correlate with depression within any of the study groups. The present study confirms earlier reports in demonstrating a positive association between relative metabolism at rest in the LOFG and cognitive-behavioral and personality measures of inhibitory control in drug addiction: the higher the metabolism, the better the inhibitory control.

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