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J Med Entomol. 2005 Jan;42(1):7-18.

Systematics and biogeographical implications of the phylogenetic relationships between members of the funestus and minimus groups of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae).

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  • 1Institute of Research for the Development, Centre of Biology and Management of Populations, Campus International de Baillarguet CS30016, 34988 Montferrier sur Lez, France.


The Afrotropical Funestus and the Oriental-African Minimus Groups of the Myzomyia Series of Anopheles subgenus Cellia are considered distinct only because of their geographical separation. For the first time, a phylogenetic study was done on six Oriental and four Afrotropical species based on the comparison of ribosomal (ITS2, D3) and mitochondrial (COI) nucleotide sequences. Both maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses revealed that the groups form a monophyletic assemblage containing four clades. The inclusion of Afrotropical An. leesoni with the Oriental species was confirmed, whereas An. rivulorum, also an Afrotropical species, was placed in a basal position relative to the African and Oriental species. The biogeography of the Afrotropical and Oriental species was examined in relation to the phylogeny and estimates of divergence time. Divergence events correspond to periods of major tectonic movement as well as periods of great aridity or humidity.

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