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Am J Physiol. 1992 Apr;262(4 Pt 1):C803-27.

Chemical probes for anion transporters of mammalian cell membranes.

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  • 1Department of Biological Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.

Abstract

Mammalian cell membranes harbor several types of chloride channels, chloride-cation symporters/cotransporters, and several classes of anion exchangers/antiporters. These transport systems subserve different cellular or organismic functions, depending on the nature of the cell, the spatial organization of transporters, and their functional interplay. Chemical probing has played a central role in the structural and functional delineation of the various anion transport systems. The design of specific probes or their selection from existing sources coupled with their judicious application to the most appropriate biological system had led to the identification of specific anion transporters and to the elucidation of the underlying molecular transport mechanism. In many instances, chemical probing has remained the major or exclusive analytical tool for the functional definition or identification of a given transport system, particularly for discerning among the various anion transporters which operate in highly heterogeneous cell membrane systems. This work critically reviews the present state of the chemical armamentarium available for the most common anion transporters found in mammalian cell membranes. It encompasses the description of the most useful or commonly used probes in terms of their chemical, biochemical, physiological, and pharmacological properties. The review deals primarily with what chemical probes tell about anion transporters and, most importantly, with the limitations inherent in the use of probes in transport studies.

PMID:
1566811
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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