Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Endourol. 2004 Nov;18(9):853-7.

Stone disease in the Hmong of Minnesota: initial description of a high-risk population.

Author information

  • 1Metro Urology, Fort Road Medical Building, 360 Sherman Street, Suite 400, St. Paul, MN 55102, USA. aportis@metro-urology.com



The Hmong are an ethically distinct refugee population from the highlands of Laos. Metropolitan Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota is home to the largest population of Hmong ( 40,000) outside Asia. A clinical impression that the Hmong have a high rate of uric acid stone disease was evaluated.


A retrospective chart review was performed. All adult Hmong patients seen between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2001, by a large urology group practice (N = 205) were compared with a similar number of non-Hmong patients (N = 204).


Of these patients, 94 Hmong (46%) and 23 non-Hmong (11%) patients had stone disease (P < 0.001). After addition of 75 non-Hmong stone patients to create a suitable comparison group, a total of 86 Hmong and 88 non-Hmong stone patients had complete records. Sex (57% v 60% male) and mean age (47.9 v 47.3 years) were similar. Staghorn calculi were found in 21 Hmong (24%) and 0 non-Hmong patients (P < 0.001). Surgical treatments differed between Hmong and non-Hmong (P = 0.004): SWL (16 v 35), ureteroscopy (24 v 29), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (19 v 7), and nephrectomy (5 v 0). Treatment for staghorn calculi was refused by 9 Hmong patients (43%). Stone composition was available in 40 Hmong and 39 non-Hmong. Uric acid (>10%) was found in 50% of Hmong and 10% of non-Hmong stones (P < 0.001).


Hmong patients who come to urologic attention tend to do so for stone disease and tend to have uric acid calculi. The frequent requirement for invasive therapy, including nephrectomy, in the Hmong is of concern.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk