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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun;288(6):E1062-6. Epub 2005 Jan 18.

Contraction- and hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport is mediated by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism in slow-twitch rat soleus muscle.

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  • 1Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Sciences, Department of Medicine, Washington Univ. School of Medicine, Applied Physiology, Campus Box 8113, 4566 Scott Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.


Increases in contraction-stimulated glucose transport in fast-twitch rat epitrochlearis muscle are mediated by AMPK- and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK)-dependent signaling pathways. However, recent studies provide evidence suggesting that contraction-stimulated glucose transport in slow-twitch skeletal muscle is mediated through an AMPK-independent pathway. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that contraction-stimulated glucose transport in rat slow-twitch soleus muscle is mediated by an AMPK-independent/Ca2+-dependent pathway. Caffeine, a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-releasing agent, at a concentration that does not cause muscle contractions or decreases in high-energy phosphates, led to an approximately 2-fold increase in 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake in isolated split soleus muscles. This increase in glucose transport was prevented by the SR calcium channel blocker dantrolene and the CAMK inhibitor KN93. Conversely, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an AMPK activator, had no effect on 2-DG uptake in isolated split soleus muscles yet resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase. The hypoxia-induced increase in 2-DG uptake was prevented by dantrolene and KN93, whereas hypoxia-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPK was unaltered by these agents. Tetanic muscle contractions resulted in an approximately 3.5-fold increase in 2-DG uptake that was prevented by KN93, which did not prevent AMPK phosphorylation. Taken in concert, our results provide evidence that hypoxia- and contraction-stimulated glucose transport is mediated entirely through a Ca2+-dependent mechanism in rat slow-twitch muscle.

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