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Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(2):175-86.

Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug interaction potential of enfuvirtide.

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  • 1Roche, Nutley, New Jersey 07110, USA.


Enfuvirtide, the first fusion inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, is a synthetic peptide that binds to HIV-1 glycoprotein 41, blocking the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. When administered subcutaneously at the recommended dose of 90 mg twice daily with optimised background antiretroviral therapy, enfuvirtide significantly reduces plasma HIV-1 RNA levels up to 48 weeks compared with optimised background therapy alone. Enfuvirtide exhibits a small volume of distribution (5.48 L), low systemic clearance (1.4 L/h) and high plasma protein binding (92%). Less than 17% of enfuvirtide is converted to a minimally active deaminated form of the parent drug. Both enfuvirtide and its metabolite are primarily eliminated via catabolism to amino acid residues. Following subcutaneous administration, enfuvirtide is almost completely absorbed, and exposure increases almost linearly with dose over the range 45-180 mg. When administered at the recommended dose in adults, subcutaneous absorption is slow and protracted, resulting in relatively flat steady-state plasma concentration-time profiles. Bioavailability is high (84.3%) and the elimination half-life (3.8 hours) supports twice-daily administration. Comparable absorption was observed from three different anatomical injection sites. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship indicates that the recommended dose, in combination with other active antiretrovirals, is optimal. Enfuvirtide clearance is influenced to a small extent by sex and bodyweight but this does not necessitate dosage adjustment. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that enfuvirtide has a low potential to interact with concomitantly administered drugs. Enfuvirtide did not influence concentrations of drugs metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, CYP2D6 or N-acetyltransferase, and had only minimal effects on those metabolised by CYP1A2, CYP2E1 or CYP2C19. Coadministration of ritonavir, ritonavir-boosted saquinavir or rifampicin (rifampin) did not result in clinically significant changes in enfuvirtide pharmacokinetics. In HIV-1-infected paediatric patients, subcutaneous dosages based on bodyweight (2 mg/kg twice daily) produce pharmacokinetics broadly similar to those observed in adults administered 90 mg twice daily.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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