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Hypertension. 2005 Mar;45(3):321-5. Epub 2005 Jan 17.

Mobilizing endothelial progenitor cells.

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  • 1Molecular Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Frankfurt, Germany.


Mobilization of endogenous endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow may be an alternative way to increase neovascularization and may be used as therapeutic option for the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the EPC mobilizing effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as granolocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor, erythropoietin, and angiopoietin-1, chemokines such as stromal cell-derived factor-1, hormones such as estrogens and lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic drugs, as well as physical activity.

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