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J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005 Jan;88(1):139-57.

Delineating the structure of normal and abnormal personality: an integrative hierarchical approach.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.


Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed.

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