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Biomaterials. 2005 Jun;26(17):3713-8.

Development of high-viscosity, two-paste bioactive bone cements.

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  • 1Department of Dental Biomaterials, Guy's King's & St. Thomas' Dental Institute, King's College, Floor 17, Guy's Tower, London Bridge, London SE1 2RT, UK. sanjukta.deb@kcl.ac.uk


Self-curing two-paste bone cements have been developed using methacrylate monomers with a view to formulate cements with low polymerization exotherm, low shrinkage, better mechanical properties, and improved adhesion to bone and implant surfaces. The monomers include bis-phenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (bis-GMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) as a viscosity modifier. Two-paste systems were formulated containing 60% by weight of a bioactive ceramic, hydroxyapatite. A methacroyloxy silane (A174) was used as a coupling agent due to its higher water stability in comparison to other aminosilanes to silanate the hydroxyapatite particles prior to composite formulation. A comparison of the FT-infrared spectrum of hydroxyapatite and silanated hydroxyapatite showed the presence of the carbonyl groups ( approximately 1720 cm(-1)), -C=C-( approximately 1630 cm(-1)) and Si-O- (1300-1250 cm(-1)) which indicated the availability of silane groups on the filler surface. Two methods of mixing were effected to form the bone cement: firstly by mixing in an open bowl and secondly by extruding the two pastes by an auto-mixing tip using a gun to dispense the pastes. Both types of cements yielded low polymerization exotherms with good mechanical properties; however, the lower viscosity of UDMA allowed better extrusion and handling properties. A biologically active apatite layer formed on the bone cement surface within a short period after its immersion in simulated body fluid, demonstrating in vitro bioactivity of the composite. This preliminary data thus suggests that UDMA is a viable alternative to bis-GMA as a polymerizable matrix in the formation of bone cements.

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