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Expert Rev Vaccines. 2004 Dec;3(6):711-6.

Vaccination for atherosclerosis: a novel therapeutic paradigm.

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  • 1Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Cardiology Division, Suite 5347, 8700 Beverly Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.


Numerous studies have identified a role for the innate and adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis; both pro- and antiatherogenic roles for the immune responses have been demonstrated. Common autoantigens against which an immune response has been identified in experimental and human models of atherosclerosis include oxidized low-density lipopoteins, beta2 glycoprotein 1 and heat shock protein 60. Activation of atheroprotective adaptive immune responses have been demonstrated for oxidized low-density lipoprotein-related antigens. Conversely, atheroprotection has been demonstrated with the induction of immune tolerance through activation of mucosal immunity to heat shock protein 65/60 and beta2 glycoprotein 1. Recent identification of specific immunoreactive antigenic epitopes in the apolipoprotein B-100 component of low density lipoproetin and early experimental observations have provided proof of concept that active vaccination using specific apolipoprotein B-100-related antigens may emerge as a novel immunomodulating atheroprotective strategy.

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