Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int J Infect Dis. 2005 Jan;9(1):52-9.

Long-term improvement in unsafe injection practices following community intervention.

Author information

  • 1Community Health Sciences Department, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.



A study in 1994 identified frequent unsafe injections as the cause of widespread hepatitis C virus infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan. A simple low cost community education program was assessed to see if it improved injection safety.


A local health organization developed educational materials on hepatitis C including advice on how to avoid unnecessary injections and, when injections were necessary, to use a new syringe and needle. Beginning in 1995, this advice was communicated through multiple channels including health education meetings, announcements in mosques, and via pamphlets. In 1998 study workers revisited controls from the 1994 case-control study (along with three of their neighbors of a similar age) to collect information on injection practices in the previous 12 months.


Thirty-three percent of the study's participants in 1998 received >or=5 injections in the preceding 12 months compared to 40% of the hepatitis C virus negative controls reported in the year prior to the 1994 study (p=0.85). In 1998 52 persons (34%) brought their own syringe for their most recent injection, a practice that was unreported in 1994. Overall, in 1998 59% of patients received their most recent injection with a new syringe and needle compared to 24% in 1994 (p=0.003).


Following this low cost health communication effort, community members took steps to protect themselves from unsafe injections.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk