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Nihon Rinsho. 2004 Dec;62(12):2197-203.

[TIR domain--containing adaptors regulate TLR-mediated signaling pathways].

[Article in Japanese]

Author information

  • 1Department of Host Defence, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University.


Recognition of pathogens by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers innate immune responses via signaling pathways mediated by several Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing adaptors such as MyD88, TIRAP, and TRIF. MyD88 is a common adaptor that is essential for proinflammatory cytokine production, whereas TRIF mediates the MyD88-independent pathway from TLR3 and TLR4 that is responsible for type I interferon production in response to double-stranded RNA and LPS, respectively. TIRAP specifically participates in the MyD88-dependent pathways shared by TLR2 and TLR4, and TRAM is essential for the TLR4-mediated MyD88-independent pathway. Thus, TIR domain-containing adaptors play an important role in the TLR mediated signaling pathways.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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