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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2005 Mar;60(3):324-49.

Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review.

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  • 1National Institute for Plant Biodiversity Conservation and Research, Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar 751015, Orissa, India.

Abstract

Plants exposed to salt stress undergo changes in their environment. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Essential pathways include those that lead to synthesis of osmotically active metabolites, specific proteins, and certain free radical scavenging enzymes that control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals or chaperones. The ability of plants to detoxify radicals under conditions of salt stress is probably the most critical requirement. Many salt-tolerant species accumulate methylated metabolites, which play crucial dual roles as osmoprotectants and as radical scavengers. Their synthesis is correlated with stress-induced enhancement of photorespiration. In this paper, plant responses to salinity stress are reviewed with emphasis on physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance. This review may help in interdisciplinary studies to assess the ecological significance of salt stress.

PMID:
15590011
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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