Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Dec;42(12):5571-7.

Trends in antimicrobial resistance in 1,968 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in Spanish hospitals (2001 to 2003): decreasing penicillin resistance in children's isolates.

Author information

  • 1Centro Nacional de MicrobiologĂ­a, Ministry of Health, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.


To address the public health problem of antibiotic resistance, the European Union (EU) founded the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. A network of 40 hospitals that serve approximately 30% of the Spanish population (about 12 million) participated. Each laboratory reported data on antimicrobial susceptibility testing using standard laboratory procedures that were evaluated by an external quality control program. The antibiotic consumption data were obtained from the National Health System. We compared the antibiotic susceptibility of Spanish isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (2001 to 2003) with antibiotic consumption. Invasive S. pneumoniae was isolated from 1,968 patients, 20% of whom were children at or below the age of 14 years. Of non-penicillin-susceptible strains (35.6%; 95% confidence interval, 34 to 37.2), 26.4% were considered intermediate and 9.2% were considered resistant. Between 2001 and 2003, penicillin resistance decreased from 39.5 to 33% overall and from 60.4 to 41.2% in children at or below the age of 14 years (P = 0.002). Resistance to erythromycin was at 26.6%, and coresistance with penicillin was at 19.1%. Of total isolates, the ciprofloxacin MIC was >2 mug/ml for 2.1%, with numbers increasing from 0.4% (2001) to 3.9% (2003). Total antibiotic use decreased from 21.66 to 19.71 defined daily doses/1,000 inhabitants/day between 1998 and 2002. While consumption of broad-spectrum penicillins, cephalosporins, and erythromycin declined, use of amoxicillin-clavulanate and quinolones increased by 17.5 and 27%, respectively. The frequency of antibiotic resistance in invasive S. pneumoniae in Spain was among the highest in the EU. However, a significant decrease in penicillin resistance was observed in children. This decrease coincided with the introduction of a heptavalent conjugate pneumoccocal vaccine (June 2001) and with a global reduction in antibiotic consumption levels.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk