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BMC Neurol. 2004 Nov 30;4(1):20.

Homozygosity for a missense mutation in the 67 kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase in a family with autosomal recessive spastic cerebral palsy: parallels with Stiff-Person Syndrome and other movement disorders.

Author information

  • 1Molecular Medicine Unit, University of Leeds, Clinical Sciences Building, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK. clare.email@tiscali.co.uk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cerebral palsy (CP) is an heterogeneous group of neurological disorders of movement and/or posture, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1000 live births. Non-progressive forms of symmetrical, spastic CP have been identified, which show a Mendelian autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We recently described the mapping of a recessive spastic CP locus to a 5 cM chromosomal region located at 2q24-31.1, in rare consanguineous families.

METHODS:

Here we present data that refine this locus to a 0.5 cM region, flanked by the microsatellite markers D2S2345 and D2S326. The minimal region contains the candidate gene GAD1, which encodes a glutamate decarboxylase isoform (GAD67), involved in conversion of the amino acid and excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate to the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

RESULTS:

A novel amino acid mis-sense mutation in GAD67 was detected, which segregated with CP in affected individuals.

CONCLUSIONS:

This result is interesting because auto-antibodies to GAD67 and the more widely studied GAD65 homologue encoded by the GAD2 gene, are described in patients with Stiff-Person Syndrome (SPS), epilepsy, cerebellar ataxia and Batten disease. Further investigation seems merited of the possibility that variation in the GAD1 sequence, potentially affecting glutamate/GABA ratios, may underlie this form of spastic CP, given the presence of anti-GAD antibodies in SPS and the recognised excitotoxicity of glutamate in various contexts.

PMID:
15571623
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC544830
Free PMC Article
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