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Diabetes Care. 2004 Dec;27(12):2813-8.

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Author information

  • 1School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Private Bag, Auckland, New Zealand. r.scragg@auckland.ac.nz

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and diabetes risk and whether it varies by ethnicity.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

We performed an analysis of data from participants who attended the morning examination of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. Serum levels of 25OHD, which reflect vitamin D status, were available from 6,228 people (2,766 non-Hispanic whites, 1,736 non-Hispanic blacks, and 1,726 Mexican Americans) aged > or =20 years with fasting and/or 2-h plasma glucose and serum insulin measurements.

RESULTS:

Adjusting for sex, age, BMI, leisure activity, and quarter of year, ethnicity-specific odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes (fasting glucose > or =7.0 mmol/l) varied inversely across quartiles of 25OHD in a dose-dependent pattern (OR 0.25 [95% CI 0.11-0.60] for non-Hispanic whites and 0.17 [0.08-0.37] for Mexican Americans) in the highest vitamin D quartile (25OHD > or =81.0 nmol/l) compared with the lowest 25OHD (< or =43.9 nmol/l). This inverse association was not observed in non-Hispanic blacks. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (log e) was inversely associated with serum 25OHD in Mexican Americans (P=0.0024) and non-Hispanic whites (P=0.058) but not non-Hispanic blacks (P=0.93), adjusting for confounders.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results show an inverse association between vitamin D status and diabetes, possibly involving insulin resistance, in non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans. The lack of an inverse association in non-Hispanic blacks may reflect decreased sensitivity to vitamin D and/or related hormones such as the parathyroid hormone.

PMID:
15562190
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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