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Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2004 Dec;31(4):745-66, ix.

Hormonal regulation of implantation.

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  • 1Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Abstract

Implantation is a complex process that requires synchronization between the embryo and a receptive endometrium. Hormones, such as the female sex steroids, prostaglandins, and peptide hormones, regulate the cellular and molecular mediators of endometrial receptivity, which include pinopodes, cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, homeobox genes, and growth factors. These mediators can be altered, despite the presence of normal hormone levels and endometrial histology; this limits the usefulness of the luteal phase endometrial biopsy. Therefore, analysis of markers of endometrial receptivity may predict successful implantation better. Elevated androgen and estrogen levels, as seen with polycystic ovary syndrome and controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, respectively, also can have detrimental effects on the endometrium, and therefore, implantation.

PMID:
15550333
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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