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J Exp Med. 2004 Nov 15;200(10):1299-314.

Insufficient production and tissue delivery of CD4+ memory T cells in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

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  • 1Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, West Campus, 505 NW 185th Ave., Beaverton, OR 97006, USA. pickerl@ohsu.edu

Abstract

The mechanisms linking human immunodeficiency virus replication to the progressive immunodeficiency of acquired immune deficiency syndrome are controversial, particularly the relative contribution of CD4+ T cell destruction. Here, we used the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) model to investigate the relationship between systemic CD4+ T cell dynamics and rapid disease progression. Of 18 rhesus macaques (RMs) infected with CCR5-tropic SIVmac239 (n=14) or CXCR4-tropic SIVmac155T3 (n=4), 4 of the former group manifested end-stage SIV disease by 200 d after infection. In SIVmac155T3 infections, naive CD4+ T cells were dramatically depleted, but this population was spared by SIVmac239, even in rapid progressors. In contrast, all SIVmac239-infected RMs demonstrated substantial systemic depletion of CD4+ memory T cells by day 28 after infection. Surprisingly, the extent of CD4+ memory T cell depletion was not, by itself, a strong predictor of rapid progression. However, in all RMs destined for stable infection, this depletion was countered by a striking increase in production of short-lived CD4+ memory T cells, many of which rapidly migrated to tissue. In all rapid progressors (P <0.0001), production of these cells initiated but failed by day 42 of infection, and tissue delivery of new CD4+ memory T cells ceased. Thus, although profound depletion of tissue CD4+ memory T cells appeared to be a prerequisite for early pathogenesis, it was the inability to respond to this depletion with sustained production of tissue-homing CD4+ memory T cells that best distinguished rapid progressors, suggesting that mechanisms of the CD4+ memory T cell generation play a crucial role in maintaining immune homeostasis in stable SIV infection.

PMID:
15545355
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2211921
Free PMC Article
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