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J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004 Nov;87(5):707-21.

A hierarchical analysis of 1,710 English personality-descriptive adjectives.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada.


The structure of the English personality lexicon was investigated using self-ratings (N = 310) on a set of 1,710 personality-trait adjectives. The 5-factor solution resembled the Big Five structure, but included rotational variants of Agreeableness and Emotional Stability similar to those of other languages. In the 6-factor solution an additional factor, defined by terms such as unpretentious versus sly, resembled an Honesty-Humility factor observed in other languages. The 6-factor solution also produced an especially clear 5th factor, defined by Intellect, Imagination, and Unconventionality content. The hierarchical emergence of factors from 1 to 7 was explored, and the 7-factor solution yielded a Religiosity factor, adding to the diverse array of 7th factors observed in other languages.

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