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Am J Public Health. 2004 Nov;94(11):1942-4.

Environmental justice, cumulative environmental risk, and health among low- and middle-income children in upstate New York.

Author information

  • 1Department of Design and Environmental Analysis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-4401, USA. gwe1@cornell.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We documented inequitable, cumulative environmental risk exposure and health between predominantly White low-income and middle-income children residing in rural areas in upstate New York.

METHODS:

Cross-sectional data for 216 third- through fifth-grade children included overnight urinary neuroendocrine levels, noise levels, residential crowding (people/room), and housing quality.

RESULTS:

After control for income, maternal education, family structure, age, and gender, cumulative environmental risk exposure (0-3) (risk >1 SD above the mean for each singular risk factor [0, 1]) was substantially greater for low-income children. Cumulative environmental risk was positively correlated with elevated overnight epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol in the low-income sample but not in the middle-income sample.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cumulative environmental risk exposure among low-income families may contribute to bad health, beginning in early childhood.

PMID:
15514234
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1448566
Free PMC Article
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