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Cell Tissue Bank. 2004;5(3):161-75.

Ophthalmic applications of preserved human amniotic membrane: a review of current indications.

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  • 1Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Services, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract

Preserved human amniotic membrane (AM) is currently being used for a wide spectrum of ocular surface disorders. The AM has a basement membrane, which promotes epithelial cell migration and adhesion. The presence of a unique avascular stromal matrix reduces inflammation, neovascularization and fibrosis. The basic tenets of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) are to promote re-epithelialization, to reconstruct the ocular surface and to provide symptomatic relief from surface aberrations. AMT is a useful technique for reconstruction of surface defects resulting from removal of surface tumors and symblephara. AMT has effectively restored a stable corneal epithelium in eyes with, persistent epithelial defects and corneal ulcers. In the setting of acute ocular burns and SJS, AMT has satisfactorily reduced scarring and inflammation. AMT alone may be an effective alternative for partial limbal stem cell deficiency. However remarkable improvements in surface stability have resulted from concurrent AMT and limbal stem cell transplantation, wherein the limbal grafts are obtained from the normal fellow eye, living relative or cadaveric eye. In severe or bilateral cases, well being of the donor eye is a major concern. Currently, the most unique application of preserved human AM in ophthalmology is its use as a substrate for ex-vivo expansion of corneal and conjunctival epithelium. In this novel technique of tissue engineering, epithelial stem cells can be safely harvested and expanded on denuded AM. The resultant composite cultured tissue has been successfully transplanted to restore vision, as well as the structure and function of damaged ocular surfaces.

PMID:
15509905
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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