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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Nov;15(11):2923-32.

Racial and center differences in hemodialysis adequacy in children treated at pediatric centers: a North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) report.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. <>


This study assessed hemodialysis adequacy in pediatric centers. Monthly adequacy data were requested in NAPRTCS enrollees on hemodialysis for at least 6 mo. Data forms were returned for 147 children from 32 centers. Data are presented for the 138 children (57% boys, 45% black) that were dialyzed 3 times/wk, representing 2282 patient-months of follow-up. Pre- and postdialysis BUN levels were reported in all children. Kt/V values were reported in 76 children; however, sufficient data were obtained to calculate Kt/V in 129 children. On average, 14.9 Kt/V and 15.2 urea reduction ratio (URR) values were calculated per child. Aggregate dialysis dose was defined as adequate if Kt/V was >1.2 in at least 75% of calculated Kt/V measures within a subject. Mean +/- SD age was 11.3 +/- 3.7 yr (median, 12.0 yr). Hemodialysis dose was variable within subjects (median CV%: URR 8.2, Kt/V 16.9). Aggregate dialysis dose was adequate in 70% of subjects. Multivariate logistic regression showed male gender (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.98), black race (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.67), larger body surface area (fourth versus first quartile: OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.80), and absence of reported Kt/V at the treating center (OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.62) were significant predictors of inadequate dialysis dose. Age, renal diagnosis, and center size were not associated with adequacy. Racial and gender disparities in hemodialysis dose existed among children at specialized academic pediatric centers and a substantial proportion received inadequate hemodialysis.

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