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Dis Markers. 2004;20(3):167-78.

Heart disease, clinical proteomics and mass spectrometry.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.


Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. As such, biomarkers are needed for the diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic monitoring and risk stratification of acute injury (acute myocardial infarction (AMI)) and chronic disease (heart failure). The procedure for biomarker development involves the discovery, validation, and translation into clinical practice of a panel of candidate proteins to monitor risk of heart disease. Two types of biomarkers are possible; heart-specific and cardiovascular pulmonary system monitoring markers. Here we review the use of MS in the process of cardiac biomarker discovery and validation by proteomic analysis of cardiac myocytes/tissue or serum/plasma. An example of the use of MS in biomarker discovery is given in which the albumin binding protein sub-proteome was examined using MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Additionally, an example of MS in protein validation is given using affinity surface enhanced laser desorption ionization (SELDI) to monitor the disease-induced post-translational modification and the ternary status of myocyte-originating protein, cardiac troponin I in serum.

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