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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Oct 19;44(8):1593-600.

Renal insufficiency as an independent predictor of mortality among women with heart failure.

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  • 1Division of General Internal Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-1364, USA. bibbinsk@medicine.ucsf.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

We sought to explore the association between renal insufficiency and mortality among women with heart failure (HF) and to evaluate this risk by the presence of preserved or depressed systolic function.

BACKGROUND:

Although HF is common in older women, little is known about their risk factors for mortality.

METHODS:

This prospective cohort study retrospectively analyzed data from the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS). Of the 2,763 women in HERS, 702 had HF. Renal function was categorized as creatinine clearance (CrCl) >60 ml/min, 40 to 60 ml/min, and <40 ml/min. We used proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between renal insufficiency and mortality.

RESULTS:

Over a mean 5.8 years, 228 women with HF died (32%). Renal insufficiency was strongly associated with mortality, even after adjustment for co-morbid conditions, systolic function, and medications (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 2.16 for CrCl 40 to 60 ml/min; adjusted HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.62 for CrCl <40 ml/min). Preserved or depressed systolic function did not modify the association between renal insufficiency and mortality risk, but the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors did modify this risk (ACE users: adjusted HR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.6; ACE nonusers: adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2; p = 0.02 for interaction). Compared with other risk factors for mortality, renal insufficiency had the highest population attributable risk (27%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Renal insufficiency was a major predictor of mortality among women with HF and preserved or depressed systolic function. This risk was attenuated by the use of ACE inhibitors.

PMID:
15489091
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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