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J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 17;279(51):53196-204. Epub 2004 Oct 12.

G16-mediated activation of nuclear factor kappaB by the adenosine A1 receptor involves c-Src, protein kinase C, and ERK signaling.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Neuroscience Center, and Biotechnology Research Institute, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.


The G(i)-linked adenosine A1 receptor has been shown to mediate anti-inflammatory actions, possibly via modulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB). Here we demonstrate that an adenosine A1 agonist, N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), activated IKKalpha/beta phosphorylation through PTX-insensitive G proteins in human lymphoblastoma Reh cells. To delineate the mechanism of action, different PTX-insensitive G proteins were expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Only Galpha(16) supported the CHA-induced IKK phosphorylation and NFkappaB-driven luciferase activity in time-dependent, dose-dependent, and PTX-insensitive manners. Gbetagamma subunits also modulated IKK/NFkappaB, as indicated by the stimulatory actions of Gbeta(1)gamma(2) and the abrogation of CHA-induced response by transducin. The participation of phospholipase Cbeta, protein kinase C, and calmodulin-dependent kinase II in CHA-induced IKK/NFkappaB activation were demonstrated by employing specific inhibitors and dominant-negative mutants. Inhibition of c-Src and numerous intermediates along the extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) kinase cascade including Ras, Raf-1 kinase, and MEK1/2 abolished the CHA-induced IKK/NFkappaB activation. Although c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK were also activated by CHA, they were not required for the IKK/NFkappaB regulation. Similar results were obtained using Reh cells. These data suggest that the G(16)-mediated activation of IKK/NFkappaB by CHA required a complex signaling network composed of multiple intermediates.

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