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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Sep;191(3):985-92.

Assessing the risk of birth defects associated with antiretroviral exposure during pregnancy.

Author information

  • 1Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, Md 20892, USA. hw59i@nih.gov



The purpose of this study was to examine teratogenic risk of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs.


The Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) monitors prenatal exposures to ARV drugs and pregnancy outcome through a prospective exposure-registration cohort. Statistical inference uses exact methods for binomial proportions.


Through July 2003, APR has monitored 3583 live births exposed to ARV. Among 1391 first trimester exposures, there were 38 birth defects, prevalence of 2.7% (95% CI 1.9-3.7), not significantly higher than the CDC's population surveillance rate, 3.1 per 100 live births (95% CI 3.1-3.2). For lamivudine, nelfinavir, nevirapine, stavudine, and zidovudine, sufficient numbers of live births (>200) following first-trimester exposures have been monitored to allow detection of a 2-fold increase in risk of birth defects overall; no increases have been detected.


APR data demonstrate no increase in prevalence of birth defects overall or among women exposed to lamivudine, nelfinavir, nevirapine, stavudine, and zidovudine.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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