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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Sep;191(3):864-71.

Outcomes of children at 2 years after planned cesarean birth versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: the International Randomized Term Breech Trial.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.



The purpose of this study was to determine whether planned cesarean delivery for the singleton fetus in breech presentation at term reduces the risk of death or neurodevelopmental delay at 2 years of age.


In selected centers in the Term Breech Trial, children were screened for abnormalities at > or =2 years of age with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, followed by a neurodevelopmental assessment if the Ages and Stages Questionnaire score was abnormal.


A total of 923 of 1159 children (79.6%) from 85 centers were followed to 2 years of age. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental delay was no different for the planned cesarean than for the planned vaginal birth groups (14 children [3.1%] vs 13 children [2.8%]; relative risk, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.52- 2.30; P = .85; risk difference, +0.3%; 95% CI, -1.9%, +2.4%).


Planned cesarean delivery is not associated with a reduction in risk of death or neurodevelopmental delay in children at 2 years of age.

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