Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Neurosci. 1992 Mar;12(3):729-35.

Behavioral analysis of internal memory states using cooling-induced retrograde amnesia in Limax flavus.

Author information

  • 1Sanyo Electric Company, Limited, Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki, Japan.


Temporal evolution of internal memory states in a terrestrial mollusk, Limax flavus, was studied using cooling-induced retrograde amnesia. The slug was conditioned to avoid carrot odor by temporally correlated presentation of carrot juice and a bitter-taste stimulus of quinidine sulfate. We could induce retrograde amnesia by cooling of the conditioned slug immediately after the training trial. Thus, we studied the memory states in the slug using the retrograde amnesia according to strategies used in the studies of memory states in mammals or insects. In the early process of memory acquisition, at least two distinctive memory states were observed, short-term memory and long-term memory (LTM). For LTM, two states were also observed. One was a reactivated state of LTM, which was sensitive to the cooling used to induce the amnesia. The other was a so-called resting state of LTM, which was insensitive to cooling. A few days after memory acquisition, further evolution was observed in that the amnesia could not be induced even if the memory trace was reactivated. The results obtained in Limax flavus was comparable with those obtained in a variety of animals.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk