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Arthritis Res Ther. 2004;6(5):208-14. Epub 2004 Aug 5.

Emerging mechanisms of immune regulation: the extended B7 family and regulatory T cells.

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  • 1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.


Whereas B7-1/B7-2 and CD28/cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) serve as the main switches regulating the clonal composition of activated naive T cells, other B7 family members fine-tune the expansion and properties of activated T cells. Inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS)-B7h promotes T-dependent antibody isotype switching and expansion of effector cells. Effector T cells trafficking into inflamed tissues interact with antigen-presenting cells there and are regulated by PD-1 and its ligands. B7-H3 and B7x could control the interaction between effector T cells and the peripheral tissues. The different varieties of regulatory T cells could regulate both naive T cell activation and effector function through costimulatory receptor/ligands.

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