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Nat Genet. 2004 Oct;36(10):1059-60. Epub 2004 Sep 19.

Regulatory evolution across the protein interaction network.

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  • 1Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. <>


Protein-protein interactions may impose constraints on both structural and regulatory evolution. Here we show that protein-protein interactions are negatively associated with evolutionary variation in gene expression. Moreover, interacting proteins have similar levels of variation in expression, and their expression levels are positively correlated across strains. Our results suggest that interacting proteins undergo similar evolutionary dynamics, and that their expression levels are evolutionarily coupled. These patterns hold for organisms as diverse as budding yeast and fruit flies.

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