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Am J Med. 2004 Aug 2;117 Suppl 3A:23S-28S.

Treatment of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis caused by antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

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  • 1Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Erie, Pennsylvania, USA.


Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) is a secondary bacterial infection of the nose and paranasal sinuses, usually preceded by a viral upper respiratory infection or allergy, with symptoms that have not improved after 10 days or that have worsened after 5 to 7 days. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the most common causes of ABRS in adults. Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among S. pneumoniae and beta-lactamase production among H. influenzae are formidable challenges to the successful treatment of infections caused by these organisms. To this end, various formulations of amoxicillin-clavulanate have been developed, the most recent of which is pharmacokinetically enhanced and provides a total daily dose of 4,000 mg of amoxicillin and 250 mg of clavulanate. This formulation has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of infections caused by penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (minimum inhibitory concentration 2 microg/mL); the clavulanate component provides adequate coverage of beta-lactamase-producing pathogens.

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