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Mol Biol Cell. 2004 Nov;15(11):5145-57. Epub 2004 Sep 8.

Interactions among Rax1p, Rax2p, Bud8p, and Bud9p in marking cortical sites for bipolar bud-site selection in yeast.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1292, USA.


In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, selection of the bud site determines the axis of polarized cell growth and eventual oriented cell division. Bud sites are selected in specific patterns depending on cell type. These patterns appear to depend on distinct types of marker proteins in the cell cortex; in particular, the bipolar budding of diploid cells depends on persistent landmarks at the birth-scar-distal and -proximal poles that involve the proteins Bud8p and Bud9p, respectively. Rax1p and Rax2p also appear to function specifically in bipolar budding, and we report here a further characterization of these proteins and of their interactions with Bud8p and Bud9p. Rax1p and Rax2p both appear to be integral membrane proteins. Although commonly used programs predict different topologies for Rax2p, glycosylation studies indicate that it has a type I orientation, with its long N-terminal domain in the extracytoplasmic space. Analysis of rax1 and rax2 mutant budding patterns indicates that both proteins are involved in selecting bud sites at both the distal and proximal poles of daughter cells as well as near previously used division sites on mother cells. Consistent with this, GFP-tagged Rax1p and Rax2p were both observed at the distal pole as well as at the division site on both mother and daughter cells; localization to the division sites was persistent through multiple cell cycles. Localization of Rax1p and Rax2p was interdependent, and biochemical studies showed that these proteins could be copurified from yeast. Bud8p and Bud9p could also be copurified with Rax1p, and localization studies provided further evidence of interactions. Localization of Rax1p and Rax2p to the bud tip and distal pole depended on Bud8p, and normal localization of Bud8p was partially dependent on Rax1p and Rax2p. Although localization of Rax1p and Rax2p to the division site did not appear to depend on Bud9p, normal localization of Bud9p appeared largely or entirely dependent on Rax1p and Rax2p. Taken together, the results indicate that Rax1p and Rax2p interact closely with each other and with Bud8p and Bud9p in the establishment and/or maintenance of the cortical landmarks for bipolar budding.

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