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Br J Cancer. 1992 Jun;65(6):884-90.

Functional and histological damage in the mouse bladder after photodynamic therapy.

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  • 1The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam.


Bladders of anaesthetised mice were illuminated with laser light of 630 nm at 24 h after intraperitoneal administration of the photosensitiser Photofrin II (10 mg kg-1). A range of light doses, at a power setting of 100 mW, was delivered intravesically by a fibre optic inserted into the centre of the bladder via the urethra. Functional bladder damage was assessed from increases in urination frequency and the presence of urethra. Functional bladder damage was assessed from increases in urination frequency and the presence of haematuria at 1 to 26 weeks after treatment. Whole bladder illumination with incident light doses exceeding 18.75 J cm-2 caused extensive oedema, haemorrhage and necrosis of the bladder wall and mice had to be sacrificed within 24 h. PDT with incident light doses of 3.75 to 15.0 J cm-2 caused haematuria and increased urination frequency during the first week in nearly all mice, but there was complete functional recovery by 6 to 10 weeks after doses of up to 7.5 J cm-2. Recovery was slower after higher doses and up to 50% of mice still had some increased urination frequency at 10 weeks after greater than or equal to 11.25 J cm-2, although haematuria was rare at this time. Histologically, early damage (one day after PDT) consisted of epithelial sloughing, submucosal oedema, fibrin imbibition, vascular ectasia and, rarely, thrombosis. Doses exceeding 7.5 J cm-2 were often associated with foci of necrosis. In some instances, necrosis was complicated by bacterial infection, resulting in an acute transmural inflammation with a tendency to suppuration. After doses of up to 11.25 J cm-2 there was a gradual recovery and only a mild degree of fibrosis of the bladder wall (with some increase in vascularity) remained at 6 months.

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