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Fam Med. 2004 Sep;36(8):575-81.

Assessing health literacy in African American and Caucasian adults: disparities in rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine (REALM) scores.

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  • 1Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion (CHERP), Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, PA 19104-6021, USA.



The influence of literacy on health and health care is an important area of investigation. Studies with a literacy focus are most valuable when literacy is assessed with psychometrically sound instruments.


This study used a prospective cohort sample of 1,610 primary care patients. Patients provided sociodemographics and took the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), a 66-item word pronunciation literacy test.


The sample was 65% African American; 66% were men; 51% had a high school education or less. REALM scores were significantly related to education, age, and race but not gender. When stratified by education, differences between African Americans and Caucasians remained significant. Using 19 different strategies to shorten the 66-item instrument, reliability coefficients above.80 were maintained.


The REALM is a robust assessment of health literacy. However, the discordance in scores between African Americans and Caucasians with similar educational attainment needs to be further addressed. A much shorter instrument would still have internally consistent scores and potentially be more useful in clinical settings.

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