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J Pediatr. 2004 Sep;145(3):333-9.

Liver disease in children with primary immunodeficiencies.

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  • 1Department of Child Health, Institute of Liver Studies and Department of Radiology and King's College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, United Kingdom.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate clinical features and to establish optimal management in children with primary immunodeficiency (PID) and liver disease. Study design A retrospective analysis of medical records of 147 children with PID who presented with abnormal liver tests to a tertiary center.

RESULTS:

Clinical evidence of liver disease was documented in 35 (23.8%) patients. Of these, 22 (63%) had hepatomegaly and 14 (40%) had splenomegaly. Sclerosing cholangitis (SC) was diagnosed in 21 children (60%), based on radiological and histological criteria; 4 patients with SC on cholangiography had no biliary changes in the liver biopsy. Ultrasonography demonstrated a dilated biliary system in 14 (67%) children with SC. Of 27 children investigated for Cryptosporidium parvum (CSP), 12 (44%) were positive, including 9 of 12 with SC. Overall, 7 (20%) patients died, including 3 boys with disseminated recurrent CSP infection after successful liver transplantation (LT). Temporary deterioration of liver injury was observed in 2 CSP-positive boys with CD40 ligand deficiency (CD40LD) who were undergoing nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Successive liver and HSCT was curative in 1 patient with CD40LD and end-stage liver disease.

CONCLUSION:

SC is the most common hepatic complication of PID. Mild liver involvement could be arrested by early nonmyeloablative HSCT, whereas advanced disease may warrant combined liver and HSCT.

PMID:
15343186
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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