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Nat Cell Biol. 2004 Sep;6(9):810-6.

Nuclear reprogramming: a key to stem cell function in regenerative medicine.

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  • 1Baxter Laboratory in Genetic Pharmacology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. One potential therapeutic approach involves the use of autologous cells derived from the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived cells, BMDCs). Advances in nuclear transplantation, experimental heterokaryon formation and the observed plasticity of gene expression and phenotype reported in multiple phyla provide evidence for nuclear plasticity. Recent observations have extended these findings to show that endogenous cells within the bone marrow have the capacity to incorporate into defective tissues and be reprogrammed. Irrespective of the mechanism, the potential for new gene expression patterns by BMDCs in recipient tissues holds promise for developing cellular therapies for both proliferative and post-mitotic tissues.

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