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Gait Posture. 2004 Oct;20(2):177-82.

Three-dimensional realisation of muscle morphology and architecture using ultrasound.

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  • 1One Small Step Gait Laboratory, Thomas Guy House, Guy's Hospital, London SE1 9RT, UK.


Two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound imaging and motion tracking were combined to generate three-dimensional reconstructions of the medial gastrocnemius. Architectural and morphological features of this muscle could be visualised. The length of the gastrocnemius belly was measured in normally (ND) developing children and in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) who had plantarflexion contractures. Using a random effects linear model we demonstrated that the gastrocnemius muscle bellies of children with SDCP were shorter than those of ND children (P = 0.001) even when corrected for ankle position. The technique described could be used to evaluate muscular deformity before and after an intervention.

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