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Diabetes Care. 2004 Sep;27(9):2154-60.

Relationship of depression and diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and preventive care.

Author information

  • 1Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, 1730 Minor Ave., Suite 1600, Seattle, WA 98101, USA. lin.e@ghc.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We assessed whether diabetes self-care, medication adherence, and use of preventive services were associated with depressive illness.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

In a large health maintenance organization, 4,463 patients with diabetes completed a questionnaire assessing self-care, diabetes monitoring, and depression. Automated diagnostic, laboratory, and pharmacy data were used to assess glycemic control, medication adherence, and preventive services.

RESULTS:

This predominantly type 2 diabetic population had a mean HbA(1c) level of 7.8 +/- 1.6%. Three-quarters of the patients received hypoglycemic agents (oral or insulin) and reported at least weekly self-monitoring of glucose and foot checks. The mean number of HbA(1c) tests was 2.2 +/- 1.3 per year and was only slightly higher among patients with poorly controlled diabetes. Almost one-half (48.9%) had a BMI >30 kg/m(2), and 47.8% of patients exercised once a week or less. Pharmacy refill data showed a 19.5% nonadherence rate to oral hypoglycemic medicines (mean 67.4 +/- 74.1 days) in the prior year. Major depression was associated with less physical activity, unhealthy diet, and lower adherence to oral hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and lipid-lowering medications. In contrast, preventive care of diabetes, including home-glucose tests, foot checks, screening for microalbuminuria, and retinopathy was similar among depressed and nondepressed patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a primary care population, diabetes self-care was suboptimal across a continuum from home-based activities, such as healthy eating, exercise, and medication adherence, to use of preventive care. Major depression was mainly associated with patient-initiated behaviors that are difficult to maintain (e.g., exercise, diet, medication adherence) but not with preventive services for diabetes.

PMID:
15333477
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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