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J Nat Prod. 2004 Aug;67(8):1287-90.

Reversible antifouling effect of the cyclotide cycloviolacin O2 against barnacles.

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  • 1Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, PO Box 574, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.


Cycloviolacin O2, a plant peptide of the cyclotide family, is shown to have potent effects against fouling barnacles (Balanus improvisus), with complete inhibition of settlement at a concentration of 0.25 microM. The effect of cycloviolacin O2 against barnacles is reversible and nontoxic in the bioassay employed in these studies. Cycloviolacin O2 was isolated from the terrestrial plant Viola odorata by strong cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC and identified by mass spectrometry following aminoethylation and enzymatic cleavage.

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