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Clin Biochem. 2004 Sep;37(9):772-9.

Tree analysis of mass spectral urine profiles discriminates transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder from noncancer patient.

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  • 1Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, PR China.



Recent advances in proteomic profiling technologies, such as surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI), have allowed preliminary profiling and identification of tumor markers in biological fluids in several cancer types and establishment of clinically useful diagnostic computational models. We developed a bioinformatics tool and used it to identify proteomic patterns in urine that distinguish transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) from noncancer.


Proteomic spectra were generated by mass spectroscopy (surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization). A preliminary "training" set of spectra derived from analysis of urine from 46 TCC patients, 32 patients with benign urogenital diseases (BUD), and 40 age-matched unaffected healthy men were used to train and develop a decision tree classification algorithm that identified a fine-protein mass pattern that discriminated cancer from noncancer effectively. A blinded test set, including 38 new cases, was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the classification system.


The algorithm identified a cluster pattern that, in the training set, segregated cancer from noncancer with sensitivity of 84.8% and specificity of 91.7%. The discriminatory pattern correctly identified. A sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 87.0% for the blinded test were obtained when comparing the TCC vs. noncancer.


These findings justify a prospective population-based assessment of proteomic pattern technology as a screening tool for bladder cancer in high-risk and general populations.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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