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Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 15;10(16):5518-22.

Optimal use of a panel of methylation markers with GSTP1 hypermethylation in the diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma.

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  • 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Head and Neck Cancer Research Division, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2196, USA.



In this study, we tested the ability of a panel of hypermethylation markers to improve the sensitivity of histologic prostate cancer detection in sextant needle biopsies.


We obtained fresh-frozen sextant biopsies from 72 excised prostates and directly compared blinded histologic review and quantitative real-time methylation-specific PCR for hypermethylation of four genes, Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), retinoic acid receptor beta2 (RARbeta2), and glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1) to detect the presence of prostate cancer. Results were compared with the final surgical pathological review of the resected prostates as the gold standard.


Histologic review alone detected carcinoma with a sensitivity of 64% (39 of 61 cases) and 100% specificity. Quantitative real-time methylation-specific PCR for TIG1, APC, RARbeta2, and GSTP1 detected carcinoma with a sensitivity of 70%, 79%, 89%, and 75%, respectively, with 100% specificity for all of the genes. Using this panel of methylation markers in combination with histology resulted in the detection of 59 of 61 (97%) cases of prostate with 100% specificity, a 33% improvement over histology alone.


The use of a panel of methylation markers as an adjunct to histologic review may substantially augment prostate cancer diagnosis from needle biopsies.

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