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Anal Biochem. 2004 Sep 1;332(1):75-83.

Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase promoted by carbon nanotubes.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, People's Republic of China.


A stable suspension of carbon nanotubes (CNT) was obtained by dispersing the CNT in a solution of surfactant, such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, a cationic surfactant). CNT (dispersed in the solution of 0.1% CTAB) has promotion effects on the direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx), which was immobilized onto the surface of CNT. The direct electron transfer rate of GOx was greatly enhanced after it was immobilized onto the surface of CNT. Cyclic voltammetric results showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks, which corresponded to the direct electron transfer of GOx, with a midpoint potential of about -0.466 V (vs SCE (saturated calomel electrode)) in the phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 6.9). The electrochemical parameters such as apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) and the value of midpoint potential (E1/2) were estimated. The dependence of E1/2 on solution pH indicated that the direct electron transfer reaction of GOx is a two-electron-transfer coupled with a two-proton-transfer reaction process. The experimental results also demonstrated that the immobilized GOx retained its bioelectrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose, suggesting that the electrode may find use in biosensors (for example, it may be used as a bioanode in biofuel cells). The method presented here can be easily extended to immobilize and obtain the direct electrochemistry of other redox enzymes or proteins.

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