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Langmuir. 2004 Aug 17;20(17):7223-31.

A photochemical method for patterning the immobilization of ligands and cells to self-assembled monolayers.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 5735 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.


This work describes a chemically well defined method for patterning ligands to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold. This method begins with monolayers presenting a nitroveratryloxycarbonyl (NVOC)-protected hydroquinone which is photochemically irradiated to reveal a hydroquinone group. The resulting hydroquinone is then oxidized to the corresponding benzoquinone, providing a site for the Diels-Alder mediated immobilization of ligands. The rate constant for the photochemical deprotection is 0.032 s(-1) (with an intensity of approximately 100 mW/cm(2) between 355 and 375 nm), corresponding to a half-life of 21 s. The hydroquinone is oxidized to the benzoquinone using either electrochemical or chemical oxidation and then functionalized by reaction with a cyclopentadiene-tagged ligand. Two methods for patterning the immobilization of ligands are described. In the first, the substrate is illuminated through a mask to generate a pattern of hydroquinone groups, which are elaborated with ligands. In the second method, an optical microscope fit with a programmable translational stage is used to write patterns of deprotection which are then again elaborated with ligands. This technique is characterized by the use of well-defined chemical reactions to control the regions and densities of ligand immobilization and will be important for a range of applications that require patterned ligands for biospecific interactions.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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