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Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Sep 1;37(5):582-93.

Oxidative stress and apoptosis in metal ion-induced carcinogenesis.

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  • 1College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.


Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to certain metals causes carcinogenesis. The mechanisms of metal-induced carcinogenesis have been pursued in chemical, biochemical, cellular, and animal models. Significant evidence has accumulated that oxidative stress may be a common pathway in cellular responses to exposure to different metals. For example, in the last few years evidence in support of a correlation between the generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, tumor promotion, and arsenic exposure has strengthened. This article summarizes the current literature on metal-mediated oxidative stress, apoptosis, and their relation to metal-mediated carcinogenesis, concentrating on arsenic and chromium.

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