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Pediatrics. 2004 Aug;114(2):333-41.

Epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis in the United States, 1993-2001: the need for continued vigilance.

Author information

  • 1National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. lbn9@cdc.gov

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe trends and highlight epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in the United States.

METHODS:

All verified TB cases reported to the national TB surveillance system from 1993 to 2001 were included. A child was defined as a person younger than 15 years.

RESULTS:

A total of 11,480 childhood TB cases were reported. Case rates (TB cases/100,000 population) in all children declined from 2.9 (n = 1663) in 1993 to 1.5 (n = 931) in 2001. Among children, those who were younger than 5 years had the highest rate. California, Texas, and New York accounted for 48% of all childhood TB cases. In 2001, TB case rates were higher for foreign-born (12.2) than US-born children (1.1). Hispanic and non-Hispanic black children accounted for nearly three quarters of all cases. Twenty-four percent of children with TB were foreign-born children, with the largest number originating from Mexico (39.8%), the Philippines (8.6%), and Vietnam (5.7%). Most children had evidence of pulmonary TB disease (78.9%). Among culture-positive cases without previous TB, drug resistance to at least isoniazid was 7.3% and to isoniazid and rifampin was 1.6%. In 1999, 82.9% of children received directly observed therapy for at least part of their treatment and 94.8% completed treatment.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although the overall TB case number among children is declining in the United States, certain groups of children (eg, younger children, racial and ethnic minorities, foreign-born) are at higher risk for TB. As the United States moves toward the elimination of TB, future efforts should endeavor to prevent all cases of childhood TB.

PMID:
15286213
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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