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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Aug;15(8):2186-94.

Inflammation, residual kidney function, and cardiac hypertrophy are interrelated and combine adversely to enhance mortality and cardiovascular death risk of peritoneal dialysis patients.

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  • 1Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong.


C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototype marker of inflammation, and cardiac hypertrophy are important prognostic indicators in dialysis patients. Residual renal function (RRF) has also been shown to influence survival of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study examined the relations between inflammation, RRF, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and determined whether inflammation, RRF, and LVH combine adversely to predict the outcomes of PD patients. A prospective observational study was performed in 231 chronic PD patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMi), residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), CRP, hemoglobin, serum albumin, and BP were determined at study baseline and related to outcomes. On univariate analysis, age (P = 0.002), dialysis duration (P = 0.004), coronary artery disease (P < 0.001), pulse pressure (P < 0.001), hemoglobin (P < 0.001), serum albumin (P = 0.032), log-CRP (P < 0.001), and GFR (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with log-LVMi. Log-CRP was positively correlated with pulse pressure (R = 0.218, P = 0.001) and negatively correlated with GFR (R = -0.272, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that log-CRP (P = 0.008) and RRF (P = 0.003) remained associated with log-LVMi independent of hemoglobin, serum albumin, arterial pulse pressure, and coronary artery disease. After follow-up for 30 +/- 14 mo, 34.2% patients had died. CRP, RRF, and LVMi each were significantly predictive of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant increase in all-cause (P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (P < 0.0001) as the number of risk factors, namely CRP >/=50th percentile, no RRF, and LVMi>/= 50th percentile increased with the 2-yr all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death reaching as high as 61% and 46%, respectively, for patients who had all three risk factors. Compared with patients with none of the three risk factors, those with all three risk factors had an adjusted hazards ratio of 6.94 (P < 0.001) and 5.43 (P = 0.001) for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. In conclusion, inflammation, RRF, and LVH are interrelated and combine adversely to increase mortality and cardiovascular death risk of PD patients.

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